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date: 23 April 2024



  • Arnold Hugh Martin Jones,
  • Jean-François Salles
  •  and J. F. Healey


Sidon, a *Phoenician metropolis on the coast of mod. Lebanon. The Sidonians are often synonymous with the Phoenicians in classical texts (e.g. *Homer), and the development of the city is closely bound up with Phoenician and Cypriot (see *Cyprus) history. In Achaemenid times it was ruled by local dynasts, who had close commercial relations with Athens and was strongly Hellenized by the late 4th cent.: this is shown by the sarcophagi of its later rulers and the nearby temple of Eshmun/Asclepius at Bostan esh-Shaikh (the traditional Egyptian style sarcophagus of the early 5th cent. King Eshmunazar bears the second longest Phoenician inscription). *Alexander (3) the Great, according to *Quintus Curtius (4.1.16–26), installed a new ruler after its surrender, but the local dynasts were suppressed in the early 3rd cent. (the last known king was the Ptolemaic admiral Philocles; see Egypt, Ptolemaic), and Sidon became a republic, ruled by suffetes.


  • Near East

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