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date: 04 December 2022



  • Thomas Robert Shannon Broughton
  •  and Stephen Mitchell


A territory in NW Asia Minor, originally confined to the peninsula of Chalcedon, but gradually extending eastward to *Heraclea (3) and *Paphlagonia, and southward across the Propontis to Mysian Olympus. Although much of the land is mountainous and covered with forest, the *Sangarius river with its tributaries and the valleys that run back from the Propontis form fertile plains and provide relatively easy communications. It was economically one of the richest regions of *Asia Minor, producing good timber, excellent pasturage, and all manner of fruits and grains, possessing fine marble quarries and good harbours, and crossed by the main roads to the Anatolian plateau and to Pontus.The Bithynians were related to the Thracians (see thrace) and long retained their ethnic identity. They were often at war with the Greek colonies of the coast, preserved a measure of autonomy under their own rulers during the Persian regime, and in 298/7 bce founded a dynasty beginning with King Zipoetes.


  • Ancient Geography

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