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date: 27 November 2022



  • John F. Lazenby


Town in west-central *Boeotia, scene of two battles. In the first (447 bce), a combined force of Boeotians, *Locrians, *Euboeans, and others, determined to rid central Greece of Athenian control, defeated an Athenian and allied army under Tolmides marching home after reducing *Chaeronea. As a result, the Athenians agreed to evacuate Boeotia. In the second (394 bce), *Agesilaus II of Sparta, returning from Asia Minor, encountered an army of Boeotians and others. *Xenophon (1), who was present, described this battle as ‘like no other in my time’, probably because after the Spartans had defeated the enemy left, they found the Thebans, who had similarly defeated their left, in their rear. Thereupon the Spartans countermarched their *phalanx and met the Thebans head on. After ferocious fighting, the Thebans managed to break through and rejoin their already defeated allies, but were unable to prevent Agesilaus from continuing his march.


  • Ancient Geography

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