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date: 27 November 2022


, Spartan commander


, Spartan commander
  • Stephen Hodkinson


In 411 bce he became Sparta's first commander in the *Hellespont during the Ionian War (see Peloponnesian War), procuring the revolt of *Abydos and (temporarily) *Lampsacus. While (still) *harmost at Abydos during *Lysander's admiralship c.407, he was punished for indiscipline following criticism by *Pharnabazus. In 399 he replaced *Thibron (1) as area harmost in Asia Minor. Despite orders to attack *Caria, he made truce with *Tissaphernes and campaigned against his enemy Pharnabazus, rapidly securing nine cities in Aeolis. During two separate truces with Pharnabazus he plundered Bithynian Thrace (winter 399/8 ) and secured the Thracian *Chersonese (1) (summer 398) for the Greek cities and prospective Laconian settlers. Ordered in 397 to attack Caria, he was confronted by the joint forces of Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, but obtained a further truce and an (abortive) offer of peace terms. Although selected for his cunning (being nicknamed ‘Sisyphus’) and superficially successful, his repeated truces gave Pharnabazus time to assemble the Persian fleet that defeated Sparta at *Cnidus (394).


  • Greek History and Historiography

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