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date: 04 December 2022



  • William Moir Calder,
  • John Manuel Cook,
  • Susan Mary Sherwin-White
  •  and Amélie Kuhrt


Lydia was a territory in the west of Asia Minor, centred in the lower Hermus and Cayster valleys, and bordered on the north by Mysia, on the east by *Phrygia, on the south by *Caria; the Phrygian and Carian borders were varied, and the coastal Greek cities (*Cyme, *Smyrna, *Ephesus, etc. ) were reckoned sometimes to Lydia, sometimes to *Aeolis or Ionia (see ionians). Lydia contained much natural wealth, and lying on two main routes from the coast to the interior of Anatolia it was an entrepôt of trade and lay open to Greek and Anatolian influences, which are reflected in its civilization, art, and cults. Under the Mermnad dynasty (c.700–546 bce) Lydia was a powerful kingdom, which by the time of its last king *Croesus had incorporated all the plateau of Anatolia up to the *Halys.


  • Near East

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