- P. J. Rhodes
ExtractPanhellenism, the idea that what the Greeks have in common as Greeks, and what distinguishes them from *barbarians, is more important than what divides them. The word is not an ancient one, though Panhellenes is used of the Greeks in the Iliad (2. 530) and elsewhere in early poetry (see hellenes). The idea was fostered by the panhellenic sanctuaries (below) and the Greeks' increasing contacts with non-Greeks, and then particularly by the Greeks' resistance to the Persian invasions of 490 and 480–479 bce (see persian wars), and in the *Delian League as a Greek alliance formed to continue the war against Persia. In the 4th cent., after the *Peloponnesian War, the argument that the great days of the Greeks were when they were united against Persia rather than fighting among themselves, and that to recover their greatness they should again unite against Persia, was advanced by *Gorgias (1) and *Lysias and became a recurrent theme in the works of *Isocrates.
- Greek History and Historiography
- Roman History and Historiography