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date: 26 November 2022

Antiochus (4) IVlocked

, 'Epiphanes' ('Manifest God'), c. 215–164 BCE

Antiochus (4) IVlocked

, 'Epiphanes' ('Manifest God'), c. 215–164 BCE
  • Guy Thompson Griffith,
  • Susan Mary Sherwin-White
  •  and R. J. van der Spek

Extract

Antiochus (4) (Manifest God) (c. 215–164 bce), original name Mithradates (Livy 33.19), king of the Seleucid empire (175–164), third son of *Antiochus (3) III, hostage in Rome since 189, succeeded his brother *Seleucus (4) IV with the help of *Eumenes II of Pergamum. His attempt to incorporate Ptolemaic Egypt and Cyprus (‘Sixth Syrian War’ 171–168) failed because Rome's victory over *Perseus (2) of Macedon enabled Rome to order Antiochus from Egypt (see popillius laenas, gaius). After this (168) he plundered *Jerusalem, rescinded the charter of Antiochus III, forbade the Jewish religion, and installed a cult for Zeus Olympios ( = Syrian Ba`al Shamîn?). This led to the Maccabean revolt (*Maccabees). In March 164 he lifted the ban on the Jewish religion (2 Macc. 11: 27–33). Antiochus was famous in Antiquity for his promotion of Greek culture (Tac. Hist 5.

Subjects

  • Near East

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